Geography and History of Sri Jagannatha - Arun Kumar Upadhyay. IPS ( Retd. )

Jagannātha is not a person, his incarnations are. As Puruṣa of Vedas, He is both world & its creator. However, He is located in Bhārata as it was heart of world civilization. Within Bhārata also, He is at centre in both east-west & north-south axis, called Heart zone. His worship started before glacial floods of 10,000 BC by Indradyumna and revived after floods by king Ikṣvāku in 8576 BC. His descendant Rāma (4433-4361 BC) was himself an incarnation of Jagannātha gave charge of worship to Vibhīṣaṇa, king of Lankā after death of his elder brother Rāvaṇa. So, the Uḍḍīśa Tantra of Rāvaṇa was popular here giving the name Orissa to the state. After Mahābhārata war, Chedi king Kharavel brought Jina idol from Magadha in about 824 BC as per his inscription. It was made one of 4 Pīṭhas of Śankarāchārya in 483 BC. Old Temple was rebuilt by king Ananga Bhīmadeva in about 1200 AD at cost of 12.47 Crore gold coins. Part of old structure is still visible under foundation.

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1. Jagannātha as Puruṣa-In broad sense, the whole world and its word form Vedas is form of Jagannātha as stated by Bhagavān himself in Gītā-

वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो वेदान्तकृत् वेदविदेव चाहम् (गीता १५/१५)

1000 Sūktas of Ṛgveda are symbolized by 1000 names of Viṣṇu in Sahasra-nāma. Most of these names are used for kings who maintains his part of country like Jagannātha. In particular, Gajapati king is called Moving Jagannātha. Kings in Orissa are addressed by word Chhāmu which is from Viṣṇu-Sahasranāma-Kṣamah (442), Kṣāmah (443, 854).

In Veda, Jagannātha is called Puruṣa, and as highest among various Puruṣa, He is called Puruṣottama.

At start of story of Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa in skandha 10 of Bhāgavata purāṇa, it is stated that for removal of sorrow of earth as Gau, gods led by Brahmā approached Jagannātha, who is also Vāsudeva (vāsa = space for world), Vṛṣā-Kapi (Vṛṣā = who does rain or varṣā of drops in form of galaxies, stars etc. Kapi = creation as before = copy), and Puruṣa (Conscious being in a Pura = structure, individual or the whole world as a being)-

तत्र गत्वा जगन्नाथं वासुदेवं वृषाकपि। पुरुषं पुरुषसूक्तेन उपतस्थे समाहिताः॥ (भागवत पुराण १०/१/२०)

तद् यत् कम्पायमानो रेतो वर्षति तस्माद् वृषाकपिः, तद् वृषाकपेः वृषा कपित्वम्। ... आदित्यो वै वृषाकपिः। (गोपथ बाह्मण, उत्तर ६/१२)

Description of Jagannātha as Puruṣa is in Puruṣa-sūkta occurring in all Vedas, which is recited for his worship. Puruṣa is perceived at 4 levels. As root source, there is no distinction between its parts, so it is beyond description, called Parātpara. Other 3 aspects are defined in Gītā-(1) Kṣara-Form of all beings living or inanimate is Kṣara (decaying) as any form gradually decays and finally dies. (2) Akṣara-Despite continuous decay and change, function and identity of object remains the same. This identification by name is hidden, called Kūṭastha. Kūṭa also means top point of a mountain which gives its name, though it covers a large area rising from ground level. Human body changes each minute from birth till death, but all along he is called the same person-that is Akṣara puruṣa. (3) Avyaya-Chain of creation or change is called Avyaya (no loss), as there is no overall change in system. What is lost at one place, is gain of other part. As it is more permanent or superior, it is called Uttama (best) and Jagannātha is more specifically called Puruṣottama. Place of Jagannātha is also called Puruṣottama-kṣetra.

गीता, अध्याय १५-द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च। क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते॥१६॥

उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युदाहृतः। यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः॥१७॥

यस्मात् क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः। अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः॥१८॥

2. Times of Incarnation-There are 5 eternal incarnations in space-(1) Matsya (fish) is ‘drops’ of galaxies floating in ocean of ‘Rasa’, (2) Kūrma is the creative zone in which galaxy was formed-it has been called 10 times size of galaxy. (3) Varāha (boar)-Original spread of matter is like water of ocean, compact creation is Bhūmi. Intermediate stage is mixture of 2 called Varāha (Boar = animal of water & earth, or cloud= mixture of air & water). This is seen at 5 levels-Ādi-Varāha (combination of galactic clouds), Yajña-Varāha = Kūrma field from which creation or Yajña started, Śveta-Varāha = bright zone lighted by sun, Bhū-Varāha = material from which earth was formed, Emūṣa-Varāha = Air cover of earth. (4) Yajña-Varāha = creation cycles at 9 levels (9 Sargas) giving 9 time scales. (5) Vāmana-Body of sun is Vāmana in solar system which is 157 lakh times bigger (Bhāgavata, Viṣṇu purāṇas). Sphere containing solid or rocky planets up to Mars is called Dadhi-Vāmana. That is size of Dadhi-samudra.

Human incarnations of Jagannātha are in different periods to end supremacy of Asuras. 3 lokas of Indra were Russia (Ṛṣīka in Mahābhārata), China (middle kingdom) & Bhārata. Asuras were supreme for 10 yugas = 3600 years till time of Vaivasvata Manu (13900 BC). After Vaivasvata Manu, Satya (4800 years), Tretā (3600) and Dvāpara (2400) ended in 3102 BC.  Svāyambhuva Manu was 26000 years before start of Kali in 3102 BC or about 1600 years before Vaivasvata Manu.

षड् विंशति सहस्राणि वर्षाणि मानुषाणि तु

वर्षाणां युगं ज्ञेयं दिव्यो ह्येष विधिः स्मृतः॥ (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण,//२९/१९)

वै स्वायम्भुवः पूर्वं पुरुषो मनुरुच्यते। तस्यैकसप्तति युगं मन्वन्तरमिहोच्यते॥ (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण,/ //३६,३७)

मत्स्य पुराण, अध्याय २७३-अष्टाविंश समाख्याता गता वैवस्वतेऽन्तरे। एते देवगणैः सार्धं शिष्टा ये तान्निबोधत॥७७॥

चत्वारिंशत् त्रयश्चैव भवितास्ते महात्मनः (स्वायम्भुवः) अवशिष्टा युगाख्यास्ते ततो वैवस्वतो ह्ययम् ॥७८॥

भविष्य पुराण में भी स्वायम्भुव मनु को बाइबिल वर्णित आदम कहा है जिसके १६००० वर्ष बाद वैवस्वत मनु हुये-

आदमो नाम पुरुषो पत्नी हव्यवती तथा। ... षोडशाब्द सहस्रे तदा द्वापरे युगे।

 (भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व //१६,२६)

सख्यमासीत्परं तेषां देवनामसुरैः सह । युगाख्या दश सम्पूर्णा ह्यासीदव्याहतं जगत्॥६९॥

दैत्य संस्थमिदं सर्वमासीद्दशयुगं किल ॥९२॥ अशपत्तु ततः शुक्रो राष्ट्रं दश युगं पुनः ॥९३॥

-ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण (२/३/७२)

युगाख्या दश सम्पूर्णा देवापाक्रम्यमूर्धनि । तावन्तमेव कालं वै ब्रह्मा राज्यमभाषत ॥ वायु  पुराण ( ९८/५१)

दैत्यासुरं ततस्तस्मिन् वर्तमाने शतं समाः॥६२॥ प्रह्लादस्य निदेशे तु येऽसुरानव्यवस्थिताः ॥७०॥

धर्मान्नारायणस्तस्मात्सम्भूतश्चाक्षुषेऽन्तरे॥७१॥

यज्ञं प्रवर्तयामास चैत्ये वैवस्वतेऽन्तरे । चतुर्थ्यां तु युगाख्यायान्नापन्नेष्वसुरेष्वभू ॥७२॥

सम्भूतः ससमुद्रान्तहिरण्यकशिपोर्वधे । द्वितीयो नारसिंहोऽभूद्रुदः सुर पुरःसरः ॥७३॥

बलिसंस्थेषु लोकेषु त्रेतायां सप्तमे युगे । दैत्यैस्त्रैलोक्य आक्रान्ते तृतीयो वामनोऽभवत् ॥७४॥

नमुचिः शम्बरश्चैव प्रह्लादश्चैव विष्णुना ॥८१॥ दृष्ट्वा संमुमुहुः सर्वे विष्णु तेज विमोहिताः॥८४॥

एतस्तिस्रः स्मृतास्तस्य दिव्याः सम्भूतयः शुभाः । मानुष्याः सप्त यातस्य शापजांस्तान्निबोधत ॥८७॥

71 yugas from Svāyambhuva to Kali start were of 360 years each, making it 26,000 years. This is conical rotation period of earth axis, due to which equinox (when day-night are equal) point moves backwards. So, it is called precession of equinox. 43 Yugas were up to Vaivasvata Manu, then remaining 28 yugas passed. Great Asura kings were in 10 yugas before Vaivasvata Manu (17502-13902 BC)

(1) Fourth Yuga (16422-16062 BC)-Varāha crossed ocean and killed Hirayāka. As per Zend-Avesta, Hirayāka ruled in region of river Amazon (south America, called Rasātala, or Pukara dvīpa opposite to Pukara town = Bukhara). They worshipped God in form of Varāha. To please him, Viṣṇu (human incarnation went there with 18 associates putting mask of Boar. They were welcomed as friends. Suddenly, they killed Hirayāka in palace by deceit. Purāṇas also tell that he was killed by deceit, but details are not given.

(2) Fifth or sixth yuga (16062-15342 BC)-Hiraṇyakaśipu was king of Libya-Egypt (Talātala loka). He was killed by Narasimha (incarnation of Viṣṇu from west Orissa). He was in different continent and much later, but being of same power block, was called younger brother of Hirayāka.

(3) Seventh yuga (15342-14982 BC). His proper name also was Viṣṇu and taught by Bharadvāja. He took back 3 lokas of Indra from king Bali. Many asuras thought that they could have defeated Devas in war and wars continued. To pacify, Kūrma incarnation explained that unless there is joint mining, there will be nothing to gain in war. So, there was joint mining. Asuras came from north Africa to Jharkhanda where Mandār hill was main region of mining. Vāsuki-Nāga of this region was coordinator; his temple lies at north end of Mandār. Later on, Yavanas from nearby region (west Arab) were expelled to Greece. Thus, names of minerals in Greek are titles of Asuras who came for mining-Aurum (Oram) = gold, Kerketta (compass)-mapping, Hansadā = refining ores, Minz (mina = fish) = washing, Khalko (Chalcopyrite-copper ore) = copper, Hembram = mercury, Toppo = Topaz, Ekka or Kacchhap = persons who built protective walls in mines, Sinku = Tin ore (Stanic).  Devas went for refining gold ores in Zimbabwe (Jāmbūnada svara) and silver in Mexico (Mākika = silver). Again, wars started over share of minerals. Finally Kārttikeya, defeated Bali based in Krauñcha dvīpa (north America in shape of flying bird). All this happened in period of Bali who was very long lived. Kārttikeya was related to Vāmana as per tradition of Puri. He is called Bāhuleya = son of Bahulā who is sister of Vāmana’s mother. Kārttikeya period is also indicated in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva (230/8-10) that Abhijit had fallen from pole position (north pole hadshifted away from Abhijit = Vega). Then, start of year was made from Dhaniṣṭhā in stead of Abhijit. That is system of Vedāñga jyotia where year starts with Māgha month. Then it was start of rains (varṣā), so samvatsara (year) was called Vara. Its epoch could be slightly earlier in about 15,500 BC.

(4) Matsya incarnation-Vaivasvata period (13902 BC) was period of Deva supremacy and no incarnations were needed. After that, there was period of glacial floods from about 11000 to 10000 BC in period of Vaivasvata Yama called Jamshed in Zend-Avesta. He has been called younger brother of Vaivasvata Many as he continued the same tradition. His capital Sanyamanī (Sana in Yemen) has been stated 900 west from Amarāvatī of Indra. This was at east end of Indonesia where Indra had made a monument to mark east step of Trivikrama (Rāmāyaa, Kikindhā kāṇḍa 40/53). At end of flood, there was Matsya incarnation in 9533 BC when Prabhava samvatsara started in both systems-Pitāmaha & Sūrya-siddhānta (Viṣṇu-dharmottara Purāṇa 82/7-8, 81/23-24). Cycle of 60 years follows solar year in Pitāmaha system in south India. North India takes actual time of Jupiter in a sign by mean motion which is about 361 days 4 hours. There are 86 Jupiter years in 85 solar years. Thus both the cycles match in 85 x 60 = 5100 years. 5100 years after Matsya, Rāma was born in 4433 BC when again it was Prabhava in both systems. Persian records also tell glacial floods in 9564 BC. After this, creation again started under Ṛṣabha Deva as in time of Svāyambhuva Manu, so he has been called descendant of Svaāyambhuva. Empire started like Vaivasvata Manu by Ikvāku on 1-11-8576 BC, so he has been called son of Vaivasvata Manu.

(5) After Ikvāku, incarnations are as per Vaivasvata era, called human births. These can be calculated from start of Tretā in 9102 BC (Yugas are not exactly of 360 years each). Dattātreya was in yuga 10 (before 9102 BC), Māndhātā in yuga 15 (7662-7302 BC), Paraśurāma in yuga 19 (6582-6222 BC) and Rāma in yuga 24 (4782-4422 BC).

वायु  पुराण (९८)-

एतास्तिस्रः स्मृतास्तस्य दिव्याः सम्भूतयः शुभाः। मानुष्याः सप्त यास्तस्य शापजांस्तान्निबोधत॥८७॥

त्रेतायुगे तु दशमे दत्तात्रेयो बभूव ह। नष्टे धर्मे चतुर्थश्च मार्कण्डेय पुरःसरः॥८८॥

पञ्चमः पञ्चदश्यां तु त्रेतायां सम्बभूव ह। मान्धातुश्चक्रवर्तित्वे तस्थौ तथ्य पुरः सरः॥८९॥

एकोनविंशे त्रेतायां सर्वक्षत्रान्तकोऽभवत्। जामदग्न्यास्तथा षष्ठो विश्वामित्रपुरः सरः॥९०॥

चतुर्विंशे युगे रामो वसिष्ठेन पुरोधसा। सप्तमो रावणस्यार्थे जज्ञे दशरथात्मजः॥९१॥

These tally with other records. 18 generations after Māndhāta was king Bāhu killed in 6777 BC by Dionysus (Megasthenes) = gap of about 800 years. 15 generations after Dionysus was Viṣṇu incarnation (Paraśurāma) after whose death Kalamba samvat (Kollam in Kerala) started in 6177 BC = gap of 600 years.

(6) Kṛṣṇa expired at age of 125 years in 3102 BC when Kaliyuga started. Thus, he was born on 19-7-3128 BC (Bhādra śukla 8).

(7) Buddha-There are 28 Buddhas described in Stūpa-vamśa. Siddhārtha Buddha was in 25th generation after Bhadbala of Ikvāku clan killed in Mahābhārata. He was born on 31-3-1886 BC (68 years after death of Śiśunāga of Magadha on 28-2-1955 BC, called Kauzad era in Burma). He died on 27-3-1807 on 80th birthday on Vaiśākha Pūrimā. Gautama Buddha was born in 563 BC and also lived up to about 80 years. In between there were other Buddhas also like Maitreya in Cuttack. Viṣṇu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina Brāhmaṇa of Magadha. In 756 BC, there was largest attack on India by Assyrian queen Semiramis who had gathered 35 lakh army with help of all kings of central & west Asia & north Africa. To counter that, Viṣṇu Buddha united 4 kings of north-west India at Mount Abu, forming Mālava-Gaṇa under king Śūdraka of Ujjain when his śaka started. This alliance lasted till Śrīharṣa of 456 BC, called 300 years of democracy by Megasthenes.

(8) Kalki incarnation is yet to happen though his birthday is observed on Chaitra śukla 12 (Kalki Purāṇa 1/2/15). He will wipe out entire asura armies with sword like a comet-like stories of star-wars.

3. Tradition of Jagannātha worship- (1) In time of Narasimha (about 16000 BC)

स्कन्द पुराण-वैष्णव उत्कल खण्ड, अध्याय २८-

आद्यामूर्तिर्भगवतो नारसिंहाकृतिर्नृप। नारायणेन प्रथिता मदनुग्रहतस्त्वयि।३८॥

प्रत्यक्षं पश्य भो पुत्र नारसिंह तनुं पराम्। आवाहनमतः कुर्य्या दारुब्रह्मणि तत्त्ववित्॥  (नीलाद्रि महोदय /६७)

This was in tradition of Varāha incarnation. His followers have been called Sabara = who dig the earth. This is origin of Oriya word Sabal = digging equipment. Vaikhānasa (Khanana = digging, that is done by boar = Varāha also) āgama is text of that tradition

Four festivals of that time are still observed in Orissa-

(a) 19 year yuga-Jagannātha appears in each yuga. But 19 year yuga is only in Kārttikeya calender (Vedāñga jyotiṣa). Here, yuga of 19 year has 5 samvatsaras, other 14 years are of other 4 types-Pari-, Id, Idā, Anu-vatsaras.

(b) Māgha saptami-Ratha-yātrā and bath is done on that day in Koṇārka. That was start of year & rains in time of Kārttikeya. After 18000 years now, the season has shifted back by 8.5 months in a cycle of 26,000 years.

(c) Śītala ṣaṣṭhī is observed in Sambalpur as marriage day of human parents of Kārttikeya. This is Jyeṣṭha month at height of summer, but it is still called śītala-ṣaṣṭhī as it marked start of śīta (winter) season in 15,500 BC.

(d) In time of Deva supremacy, start of uttarāyaṇa or Divya-dina was when sun was in Punarvasu star. So, the lord of Punarvasu was Aditi-mother of Devas. Divya (of Devas) year started with Punarvasu star of Aditi. Thus, old year gave birth to Aditi which created new year- अदितिर्जातमदितिर्जनित्वम् (ऋग्वेद /८९/१०, अथर्व //, वाजसनेयि सं. २५/२३, मैत्रायणी सं. /२४/). Then Ratha-yātrā was start of Divya-year. Even now Ratha-yātrā or return festival is done when sun is in Punarvasu (4-19 July).

Pre-flood idols were of blue emerald. They were lost during time of Vaivasvata Yama when glacial floods had come. ब्रह्म पुराण, अध्याय ४३-इन्द्रनीलमयी श्रेष्ठा प्रतिमा सार्वकामिकी॥७१॥

यम तां गोपयिष्यामि सिकताभिः समन्ततः॥७४॥ लुप्तायां प्रतिमायां तु इन्द्रनीलस्य भो द्विजाः॥७७॥

स्कन्द पुराण, वैष्णव, उत्कल खण्ड, अध्याय -

दंष्ट्रोद्धृतक्षितिभृते त्रयीमूर्तिमते नमः। नमो यज्ञवराहाय चन्द्र-सूर्या-ग्नि-चक्षुषे ॥२३॥

नरसिंहाय दंष्ट्रोग्रमूर्तिद्रावितशत्रवे। यदपाङ्गविलासैकसृष्टिस्थित्युपसंहृतिः॥२४॥

तममुं नीलमेघाभं नीलाश्ममणि विग्रहम्॥२५॥

 (2) Indradyumna-First Indradyumna was a Pāṇḍya (Draviḍa) king in family of Ṛṣabha Deva (about 9500 BC). His family tree is-Viṣṇu - Brahmā -Svāyambhuva Manu - Priyavrata - Āgnīdhra - Nābhi - Ṛṣabha - Bharata -Sumati- Indradyumna. By curse of sage Agastya, he was born as elephant and was caught by a crocodile. He was saved by Nārāyaṇa and was born as king of same name in Sūrya-vamśa (Vaivasvata Manu) Avantikā in next life.

स्कन्द पुराण, वैष्णव, उत्कल खण्ड, अध्याय -

आसीत् कृतयुगे विप्रा इन्द्रद्युम्नो महानृपः। सूर्यवंशे धर्मात्मा स्रष्टुः पञ्चमपुरुषः॥६॥

He restarted worship of Jagannātha in Puri. He had control on eastern ocean and the island in his name is called Aindradyumna = Andamans. He has been called a king of Ikṣvāku family, but he was in Satya-yuga (before 9102 BC), so prior to Ikṣvāku (Skanda purāṇa-Vaiṣṇava-Utkala. 4/58). Worship of Jagannātha had been forgotten after glacial floods. It was revived by Indradyumna with help of Vidyāpati Sabara.Earlier idol was in shape of Narasimha (opposite was Sphinx in Egypt with face of man & body of lion). Pre-flood idol was in stone. From Indradyumna period, it was made with wood.

(3) Ikṣvāku-His family worshipped Jagannātha as family-god. After Rāma, worship of Jagannātha was given to Vibhīṣaṇa, younger brother of Rāvaṇa who is remembered as one of 12 great devotees. Thus, Uḍḍīśa-tantra of Rāvaṇa was popular here, giving the name Uḍīśa (Uḍra) to the region.

रामायण, उत्तरकाण्ड, अध्याय १०८-आराधय जगन्नाथमिक्ष्वाकु-कुल-दैवतम्॥२८॥

तथेति प्रतिजग्राह रामवाक्यं विभीषणः। राजा राक्षसमुख्यानां राघवाज्ञामनुस्मरन्॥२९॥

In context of Aśvamedha yajña of Rāma, Jagannātha region has been described in Padma-purāṇa-south of Gangā-sāgara.

(4) Kharavel inscription tells that in 5th year of rule, i.e. 803 years after Nanda (1634 BC) he repaired Panas (canal). Thus, his rule started in 835 BC. In 8th year of rule, he defeated Yavana attack in Mathura-this tallies with Assyrian rise and attack on India in 828 BC. In 11th year, he made janasad-bhavana (interpreted as Kalinga jina) where persons from Trimira (or mitra = friendly) countries came. This had not been done for 113 or 1300 years. It could be Sansada Bhavan of modern times.

(5) Śankarāchārya (509-477 BC) set up 4 Pīṭhas including Govardhana Pīṭha at Puri in 483 BC. King of Nepal Vṛṣadevavarman had helped him in countering 12 Bodhisattvas at Puri, so king of Nepal was only king except king of Puri who was entitled to worship Jagannātha as king.

(6) Harṣavardhana (605-646 AD) at Thaneswar ruled Orissa also. So, he was performing Ratha-yatra as king of this region. Pāṇḍu-vamśa kings are described in this period, but at least 3 published inscriptions indicate that they were just after king Janamejaya and were using his era. Their officers ruling at Mura formed Maurya empire in 1534 BC. Huensang has described a Ratha-yātra in 642 AD which had occurred after 5 years.

(7) King Ananga Bhīma Deva of Orissa in about 1200 AD constructed present Jagannātha temple in 12.47 crore gold coins, ¼ of annual income of state-Jagannāta-stala Vṛttāntam-Jagannath Sanskrit University, Puri, 2005.

4. Geography-All cosmic, physical & inner concepts of Jagannātha are expressed by the term ‘Dāru Brahma’ indicated in Ṛk veda-

अदो यद्दारुः प्लवते सिन्धोः पारे अपूरुषम्।

तदारभस्व दुर्हणो येन गच्छ परस्तरम्॥ (ऋक् , शाकल्य शाखा १०/१५५/३)

(Sāyaṇa commentary)-That wooden idol (of Jagannātha) made without human effort exists on coast of ocean (in great land of Utkala). Worship that idol, which is not destroyed by anybody. On its support only, one can achieve the highest state.

There are many meanings ot Dāru = tree-(1) Reverse tree is chain of creation where source (mūla) is called top and branches of creation are downwards. In space, it has 5 stages (Parvas)-Svāyambhuva (Universe), Parameṣṭhī (Galaxy), Saura (solar system), Chāndra (sphere of moon orbit) and Bhū-maṇḍala (earth). These are indicated by Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Indra, Soma, Agni whith 5 root vowels as symbols-a, i, u, , l. Corresponding inner letters come in same sequence in Māheśvara-sūtras-h, y, v, r, l. These are bīja (seed) mantras of 5 chakras in spinal cord as image of 5 levels in space.

(1) Physical meaning is based on world geography. North hemisphere is mapped in 4 sheets called 4 petals of earth lotus-Bhārata is 450 west & east of Ujjain. East is Bhadrāśva, west is Ketumāla & opposite is Uttara Kuru. Similarly, there are 4 sheets in south. 7 parts except Bhārata are 7 Talas. In map of Bhārata, there are 7 lokas from equator to north pole, like 7 lokas in space-Bhū (south of Vindhya), Bhuvar (Vindhya to Himālaya), Svar (Triviṣṭapa = Tibet), Mahar (China), Janah (Mongolia), Tapas (Siberia-Steppees), Satya (polar cicle).

   During great upheavals in glacial floods & ice ages in cycles of 24,000 years, Bhārata was protected from calamity as it was protected in north by Himālayas. Seen from north, it was called Indu (moon) due to 3 reasons (Huensang)-(a) Himālaya has shape of crescent moon. With Kailāsa at centre, it is symbol of moon+ star in Islam. (b) Himālaya is cold like moon. (c) Bhārata spreads knowledge like moon spreads light to whole world without any partiality. Huensang tells that Greeks mis-pronounced Indu as ‘Inde’.

Bhārata has all climate zones and fertile land unravaged in floods. As it fed the world (stated by Greeks like Megasthenes also), it was called Bhārata. Making up the loss is Pūraṇa, so place of Jagannātha is called Puri.

पृथिव्याः सधस्थादग्निं पुरीष्यमङ्गिरस्वदा भराग्निं पुरीष्यमङ्गिरस्वदच्छेदोऽग्निंपूरीष्यमंगिरस्वद् भरिष्यामः। (वाजसनेयी यजुर्वेद, ११/१६)

भरणात्प्रजनाच्चैष मनुर्भरत उच्यते । एतन्निरुक्त वचनाद् वर्षं तद् भारतं स्मृतम् ।

यस्त्वयं मानवो द्वीपस्तिर्यगग्यामः प्रकीर्तितः । य एनं जयते कृत्स्नं स सम्राडिति कीर्तितः ।

(मत्स्य पुराण ११४/५,,१५, वायु पुराण ४५/७६, ८६)

 (2) Seen from south, Bhārata is inverted triangle. If crescent shape of Himālaya is placed on it, it makes shape of heart. For providing knowledge & food, Bhārata is heart of world, so its map is symbol of heart all over the world. Jagannātha resides in heart of all beings (Gītā 18/61), so its place Puri is at centre. In east-west axis from Arab to Indonesia and in north-south from Himālaya to ocean-both ways it is in middle. So, Puri is called Heart region. Centre of knowledge or activity-both have been called Nyagrodha (Bunyan tree). Brahmā is under Nyagrodha in Puṣkara, 120 west (of Ujjain). This is present Bukhara in Uzbekistan. Opposite to that is Puṣkara-dvīpa (south America).

त्वामग्ने पुष्करादध्यथर्वा निरमन्थत। मूर्ध्नो विश्वस्य बाधतः॥१३॥

तमुत्वादध्यङ् ऋषि पुत्र ईधे अथर्वणः। वृत्रहणं पुरन्दरम्॥१४॥ (ऋक्, /१६)

न्यग्रोधः पुष्करद्वीपे ब्रह्मणः स्थानमुत्तमम्। तस्मिन्निवसति ब्रह्मा पूजमानः सुरासुरैः॥

(विष्णु पुराण, //८५, ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण, //)

एवं पुष्करमध्येन यदा याति दिवाकरः। त्रिंशद् भागन्तु मेदिन्यास्तदा मौहूर्त्तिकी गतिः॥ (विष्णु पुराण, //२६)

Place of Jagannātha also has been called Nyagrodha on coast of south sea. Bunyan tree Is symbol of knowledge (Brahmā), its secondary trees are students and the group indicate Guru-śiṣya tradition (Śiva). Bunyan tree regenerates after main tree dies, so it indicates continuity of creation after floods, described in context of Jagannātha.

दक्षिणस्योदधेस्तीरे न्यग्रोधो यत्र तिष्ठति। दशयोजन विस्तीर्णं क्षेत्रं परम दुर्लभम्॥५३॥

न्यग्रोधस्योत्तरे किञ्चिद्दक्षिणे केशवस्य तु॥ प्रासादस्तत्र तिष्ठेत्तु पदं धर्ममयं हि तत्॥५७ (ब्रह्म पुराण, अध्याय ४३)

(3) Dhāma-There are 4 dhāmas in space-Universe, galaxy, solar system-fourth is uniform Rasa as source of universe. On that pattern, there are 4 samudras (creative spheres-Bio, hydro, atmosphere, lithosphere). There are 4 dhāmas in Bhārata on that pattern-4 by Śankara in 483 BC and other 4 by Gorakhanath for Tantra. Dhāma of Jagannātha is only one. But how far it extends? There are 3 zones of Dhāma. Zone of influence is called Sāma and Viṣṇu is called Tri-sāmā in Sahasra-nāma. Boundary is called Chandana (Chhadi = to cover). Boundary of Jagannātha Puri is called Chandanapur. It is stated 5 kosa (15 kms) from temple. Second zone is boundary of Jagannātha dhāma which is 10 yojana wide (111 kms). So, it is 5 yojanas from centre till Ekāmra, place of Lingarāja. This is called Harichandana and its protectors have the same title. Ekāmra, Harichandana are synonyms of Kalpa-vṛkṣa (desire tree)-that is root desire of Jagannātha which started creation.

स्कन्दपुराण, वैष्णव, ऊत्कल खण्ड, अध्याय ३-

पञ्चक्रोशमिदं क्षेत्रं समुद्रान्तर्व्यवस्थितम्। द्विक्रोशं तीर्थराजस्य तट भूमौ सुनिर्मलम्॥५२॥

सुवर्ण बालुकाकीर्णं नीलपर्वत शोभितम्। योऽसौ विश्वेश्वरो देवः साक्षान्नारायणात्मकः॥५३॥

अध्याय १-अहो तत् परमं क्षेत्रं विस्तृतं दश योजनम्॥११॥ नीलाचलेन महता मध्यस्थेन विराजितम्॥१२॥

सागरस्योत्तरे तीरे महानद्यास्तु दक्षिणे॥३१॥ एकाम्र काननाद् यावद् दक्षिणोदधि तीरभूः॥३३॥

ब्रह्म पुराण, अध्याय ४३-दक्षिणस्योदधेस्तीरे न्यग्रोधो यत्र तिष्ठति। दस योजन विस्तीर्णं क्षेत्रं परम दुर्लभम्॥५३॥

Since, boundary of this Dhāma extends 55.5 kms from centre, this length has been called Dhāma-yojana in Vedas. It is stated that Uṣā (twilight) is 30 dhāma ahead (in west) from sun (place of its rise). In India, twilight zone is 150 longitude (180 in Europe due to more oblique surface). Thus, 1 dhāma = 0.50 longitude. This will vary for each latitude but on equator, it will be constant, i.e. 720 parts of equator = 55.5 kms.

स॒दृशी॑र॒द्य स॒दृशी॒रिदु॒ श्वो दी॒र्घं स॑चन्ते॒ वरु॑णस्य॒ धाम॑ ।

अ॒न॒वद्यास्त्रिं॒शतं॒ योज॑ना॒न्येकै॑का॒ क्रतुं॒ परि॑ यन्ति स॒द्यः ॥ (ऋक् १/१२३/)

Third boundary is whole Bhārata having 12 jyotirlingas. Fourth boundary will be whole earth.

(4) Śankha region-Jagannātha-dhāma between Mahānadi to south ocean is in shape of Śankha (conch). However, there are larger zones also. Bhārata was earlier called Aja-nābha (navel of Aja = Viṣṇu). His navel place is Manipur (Maṇipūra chakra is in navel region) from which Brahmā (Burma, now Myammar) was born. Japan has been called Pañcha-jana (= group of 5 islands) in Bhāgavata (5/19/30). Conch of Jagannātha came from that place, so it is called Pāñchajanya. Even now, Japan is biggest source of Conch and worship is done there by conch only. Combodia (local name Kambuja) also means conch. Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā kāṇḍa (42/27) tells that in quarter part west (900 west of Ujjain), there is Chakravān mountain (Mount Atlas in Ketumāla, present Morocco) where Chakra had been made by Viśvakarmā. For iron fencing, its ruler has been called Mura (Bhāgavata 10/59, Brahma 1/93). This is used by Jagannātha. In space, the zodiac circle itself is Sudarśana which cuts moon orbit in 2 points called Rāhu-Ketu.

5. Special Vedic words-Till today, about 50 Vedic words related to Indra and Jagannātha are used only in region from Orissa to Indonesia. Some examples-

(1) Bhuasuni = Bhū (land) of Śunah Indra. Śūnya (Suniya = 0) on Bhādra śukla 12 when Vāmana gave 3 lokas to Indra. Even now, first Suniya after coronation of Orissa king is zero year. Indra as Vṛddha-śravā (top in chain) is called Budharaja in Sambalpur. Sambala = army cantonment, so it was place of Chinnamastā (Samaleshwari) called Vajra-vairochanīyā. Attā (Bhoktā, having land grant) is Vīra (अत्ता ह्येतमनु । अत्ता हि वीरः । तस्मा दाह ... दक्षिणार्धे (दक्षिण भागे) सादयति । (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ४///)l Only in Orissa, land grants are called Bira-Atta-bira, Bira-maharajpur, Bira-Ramachandrapur etc. Person controlling one part (Khaṇḍa) of state is Khaṇḍāyata. King controlling whole state with all parts is Ākhaṇḍala (name of Indra). As Indra was ruler of east, Kṣatriyas are called Khaṇḍāyata only here and there is a place Ākhaṇḍala-Maṇi near Bhadraka where Indra is worshipped as Śiva. Indra was called Baṭ-mahān, i.e. great Baṭ. Baṭ is origin of word Baḍā = big in Hindi. Person with lot of money is also great and powerful. So, Baṭ (Baht) is currency of Thailand and largest temple of Combodia is Angkor-Baṭ. Indra was called Sutrāmā, so the west end of Indonesia is island called Sumatra (jumbling of letters).-बण् महाँ असि सूर्य बळादित्य महाँ असि (ऋग्वेद /१०१/११) Indra was called Bṛddhaśravā (śravā= line of command, Bṛddha = top, old). Place of his army was Sambala-pur (Sambala = collection of force, cantonment). So the place Budharaja is there.

(2) Jagannātha has been called Bhāva-grahī in Bhagavata of Jagannatha Dasa as he understands our inner feelings. So, this name is popular in Orissa. Bhāva is used as a verb also in Oriya, in Hindi and other Indian languages, it is used only as noun.

References-

(1) Original texts of Veda & Purāṇas-mostly available on internet also.

(2) Chronology of Purāṇa has been followed as it tallies more correctly with history of west Asia and modern research on glacial periods. For Oxford chronology of Indian history, there is no basis till today. Detailed note on measures of space & time can be seen in my Hindi book Sānkhya Siddhānta, chapter 3 (Nag Publishers, Delhi 2006)

(3) Details of Jagannātha history & tradition as per Indian texts can be seen in my book ‘Vedic View of Śrī Jagannātha’ by Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Tirupati, 2006. Both books are available on internet Archives or on scribd/Arunupadhyay.

(4) In addition, 3 more articles are available on scribd/Arunuoahyay-

(a) Power-point presentation Jagannātha in Oriya

(b) History and Geography of Jagannātha

(c) Dāru-Brahma


Author's Email - arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in


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